1 The Forts of Mt. Brione
When Italy declared war on Austria in 1915, the southern part of Trentino became part of the frontline. Expecting a new conflict with Italy, the area had been heavily fortified on the austrian starting as early as 1860. In the Garda area five “generations” of alpine forts can be found.
The barrier formed by the Upper Garda Austrian forts straddled a somewhat articulated front, which from the Doss of Torta-Gavardina goes down to the Rocchetta before crossing the plain of the Lower Sarca area and then climbing up the Mount Stivo and Creino, also including the stronghold of Malga Zures, in the Baldo sector: a major barrier against the advance of Italian troops coming down from the peaks of the Altissimo, from Doss Casina and Doss Alto.
The fortification buildings around Riva del Garda include the Tagliata del Ponale, Bellavista Fort, the battery on the shore, the San Nicolò Fort, the Garda Fort, the Midway Battery, the Sant’Alessandro Fort, two mortar batteries on Mount Brione, the Tombio Fort and the two Forts in Nago.
On the Italian side, there is no permanent fortification along the border, given that the front was rather far from the starting point, and thus is was believed sufficient to exercise direct control of Mount Baldo, along with the support of two large naval cannons installed in Malcesine and Limone to keep the Austrian line under pressure.